It has observed that the Cosmos "Sensation White" has been especially helpful in encouraging their Orius populations. Growers are encouraged to choose plant vendors with care. Once you start seeing an increase in numbers on the sticky cards, which may be above your established threshold (e.g., 10 to 20 adult WFT per sticky card per week), then you may need to use a different set of pest control materials including abamectin, acephate, methiocarb, spinosad, chlorfenapyr and/or pyridalyl to ‘knock down’ populations. Below are some key points to contemplate when implementing a pest management program against WFT: • The first line of defense in any pest management program is sanitation. Once WFT populations reach “high” levels, then growers rely on pest control materials, and more frequent applications (at three- to six-day intervals) may be required; however, this may promote the onset of resistance. Thrips can devastate fields and reduce yields as much as 50 percent. However, the bad ones need to be controlled and there are some specific ways to go about controlling thrips. However, the virus is systemic in fava bean plants and once infected, plants should be discarded immediately so as to not serve as a source of infection. WFT may also pupate in the open flowers of certain plants with complex floral architectures, such as chrysanthemum. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis P. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major agricultural and horticulture pest worldwide (Kirk, 2002; Kirk and Terry, 2003).It causes damage and spoilage to a vast number of economically important plant species through feeding, oviposition and spread of several plant diseases, most notably tospoviruses (Morse and Hoddle, 2006). Female thrips particularly like to lay their eggs on the flowers and fruit of plants. Western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis continues to be a serious pest of floriculture crops in New England. Use an insecticide to knock-down emerged adults. Growers sometimes ask about adding sugar to their tank mix to improve the effectiveness of the insecticide. The key to WFT management with pest control materials is to initiate applications when populations are “low,” which avoids having to deal with Box 128 Brownbridge M., M. Skinner and B. L. Parker. These are the two stages that acquire the tospoviruses (mentioned below), which are then transmitted by adults. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences. But the key to implementing a successful biological control program is to release natural enemies early enough in the cropping cycle. Bug Clear Gun for Fruit & Veg, Neudorff Bug Free Bug and Larvae Killer), fatty acids (e.g. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. If used appropriately, these options should avoid or at least alleviate WFT populations from building-up. MOA group numbers are found on many pesticide labels and are listed below for selected materials listed for managing WFT. Adult male WFT are light yellow, while adult female WFT are a little larger than the males and vary in color from light yellow, yellow with brown splotches, to dark brown. This mite performs better during warmer temperatures (summer) and in addition to thrips, it also consumes whitefly eggs. Good sanitation controls Tospoviruses. Control is usually not necessary because western flower thrips rarely cause economic damage at densities that typically occur in strawberry fields. General symptoms include leaf spots, necrotic areas, mottling and ringspots or target marks. If there is a very big thrips problem in your area, some plants have resistant varieties. Larvae rese… Also, screening will only be helpful if the source of infestation is from thrips migrating in from the outside and not from infected plant material within the greenhouse, which is most common. Depending on environmental conditions and nutrient levels, WFT females lay 150-300 eggs during their lifetime. Overlapping generations of thrips within a greenhouse may result in continuous virus transmission. You want to preserve these compounds for when you are dealing with “high” WFT populations. Winged adults then emerge from the pupal stage in one to three days, depending upon temperature. Keeping records over time will provide information on what direction the population is changing and at what rate. Begonias and poinsettias are much less susceptible to damage and thresholds are much higher. Ornamental pepper plants have been used  in spring crops as banker plants at a rate of one plant per 1,000 sq. WFT will also eat mite eggs, adult mites, other thrips. Reflective mulches can help to hide your plants from thrips. Use sticky cards to monitor adult thrips. Symptoms of WFT feeding include leaf scarring, distorted growth, sunken tissues on leaf undersides, and flower deformation (Figures 1 through 3). While resistance is of concern, failure of chemical control is most often due to poor timing, poor coverage or other factors and these causes should be considered before assuming resistance. Tolerance levels or damage thresholds determine the damage that is likely to occur at a particular population level. The table shows the mode of action of each pesticide to help you plan your pesticide rotation schedule. The lifecycle (from egg to adult), generally takes two to three weeks. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is still one of the most destructive insect pests of commercial greenhouses feeding on a wide variety of horticultural crops. Western Flower Thrips Biology: These tiny thrips (1-1.4 mm long) damage plants in both their larval and adult stages. Flower-feeding thrips are routinely attracted to bright floral colors, especially white, blue, and yellow, and will land and attempt to feed. Screening can be used to mechanically exclude WFT. Applications conducted after flowers open are, in general, too late since damage has already occurred. Solabiol Bug Free, Doff Greenfly & Blackfly Killer) or plant oils (e.g. Fecal deposits (“thrips poop”) may be present on leaf undersides (Figure 5). Connect with UMass Extension Greenhouse Crops & Floriculture Program: UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information. Heinz, J.C. van Lenteren, A. Loomans, R. Wick, T. Smith, P. Lopes, J.P. Sanderson, M. Daughtrey, and M. Brownbridge. Read on for some practical and effective suggestions to manage these destructive pests. Treating at short intervals more than one time will control overlapping generations and reduce populations. In all crops, soil drenches of nematodes such as Steinernema feltiae may be directed against western flower thrips pupae and prepupae in the soil. Enhancing the activity of insect-killing fungi for floral IPM. Western flower thrips attack a wide range of plants including: carnations, chrysanthemums, corn, cotton, cucumbers, eggplants, gerberas, grapes, impatiens, melons, peaches, peanuts, peas, and peppers. Canadian researchers also looked at castor beans, feverfew, gerbera, Lemon Gem marigold and sunflowers as potential banker plants. Sprays applied to control thrips disrupt biological control of other pests such as twospotted spider mites, lygus bugs, whiteflies, and other insects. However, western flower thrips is regarded to be a 'pesticide-induced problem', having developed resistance to pesticides from different chemical classes. management program will only work if you diligently scout your crops. Keep thrips-infected plants isolated in a separate area to prevent them from moving throughout the range. Read on for some practical and effective suggestions to manage these destructive pests. However, if INSV or TSWV is present, the tolerance levels for thrips is zero and a strict thrips control program should be implemented. Thrips feed by piercing plant cells with their mouthparts and sucking out their contents. PDF: Developing an Effective Western Flower Thrips Management Program, SePRO Announces Personnel Moves for Next Phase of Growth, Proven Winners ColorChoice Brings Back Shrub Madness Bracket Competition, University of Florida Releases New Video on Monitoring Hydroponic Systems, What Consumers See in Their Gardens of the Future, Culture Report: New Guinea Impatiens Harmony Colorfall Series, Vaughan’s Horticulture Announces Sudden Passing of Matt Willoughby, UF to Host Virtual Field Day on Compact Vegetable Evaluation, EHR Strengthens Team with Former Gloeckner Reps. This article is intended to provide applicable information so growers can develop effective strategies in dealing with WFT. Also, plant propagators will have a lower tolerance threshold for thrips than finished plant growers. Pest control materials with contact or translaminar properties are often used to regulate WFT populations whereas systemic pest control materials when applied as a drench or granules to the growing medium typically do not translocate into flower portions (e.g., petals and sepals) at sufficient concentrations to impact WFT adults that normally feed on flowers. The first step in managing thrips is to prevent thrips from entering the greenhouse. Infected plants should be placed in a closed plastic bag at the bench to avoid spreading virus-containing thrips to other areas of the greenhouse during the removal process. (Steinernema feltiae) early in the crop production cycle and make releases on a regular basis. When infestations become serious the leaves themselves can shrivel. Try not to overfertilize plants, as this can lead to more thrips damage. Three to five applications in a seven to 10-day period may be needed to obtain sufficient kill when WFT populations are “high” and there are different life stages (eggs, nymphs, pupae, and adults) and/or overlapping generations present, which occurs mainly from spring through late fall. Both adults and nymphs may aggregate in flowers or other concealed locations on plants; however, adults (particularly females) prefer to feed on pollen. Ohio Florists' Association Bulletin. Open, weedy land adjacent to orchards should be disced as early as possible to prevent thrips development and migration of adults into orchards. Thrips spot unique asymmetrical mouthparts. Biological control of western flower thrips, in general, can be very difficult or more challenging than using insecticides. Pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens) Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) . Larvae resemble adults, but are wingless. During feeding, saliva is injected into the plant cell and the contents withdrawn. Because Orius is slow to establish in the greenhouse, different types of banker plant systems have been investigated to encourage this predators  development and establishment in the greenhouse. It is difficult to diagnose tospovirus infections of greenhouse plants using visual symptoms alone. Control Of Thrips With Systemic Insecticides. Pesticides labeled for WFT in greenhouses. Stack New England Greenhouse Floriculture Guide, A Management Guide for Insects, Diseases, Weeds and Growth Regulators. Pest control materials with translaminar properties (the material penetrates and resides in leaf tissues forming a reservoir of active ingredient) may provide enough residual activity even after spray residues have dried. Most insecticides and miticides affect insects and mites in specific ways. Biological control methods, should not be used when either TSWV or INSV is already present in the greenhouse. Blue sticky cards are more effective in detecting thrips than yellow sticky cards. different age structures or life stages simultaneously over the course of the crop production cycle. CULTURAL CONTROL Western flower thrips is more difficult to control than other thrips species because it develops rapid resi… Adults emerge from the pupal stage after approximately six days. Be sure to remove all weeds, which are reservoirs for WFT and potential inoculum sources for the viruses transmitted by WFT. L.B. Attach cards to a stake with a clothespin so that cards may be raised as the plants grow. Give yourself some credit, at this point, you have done all you can to maintain WFT populations low enough to avoid economic crop damage. Floral Facts, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. • Scout crops routinely using colored (yellow or blue) sticky cards. Using Predatory Mites to Manage Western flower Thrips in Bedding Plant Greenhouses. There are many insecticides registered for WFT, but overuse of pesticides can lead to resistance in the WFT populations you are trying to control. The bulk release formulation is more effective than sachets, however, some growers found that sachet packets provide more protection to the the mites. 2001. Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips, is a representative of the order Thysanoptera. R. Chris Williamson, Turf and Ornamental Specialist Revised: 4/25/2004 Item number: XHT1022 . Adult WFT are about 1/16th of an inch long, and are long and narrow shaped, like grass seed. Cyclamen, for example, can show no symptoms for up to two months after infection. Weeds serve as host for WFT and INSV and managing weeds inside and outside the greenhouse is critical for thrips management. Trap counts and keeping records are meaningful in two ways. Silvery leaf scars and specks of black feces are a good way of diagnosing the presence of WFT on plants. Also, predatory mites (Transieus and Amblyseius species) and predatory thrips (Haplothrips) are common, but do not adequately control thrips populations, except under greenhouse conditions, where they are used as part of IPM programs. Long Island Horticulture News. Amblyseius cucumeris adults prefer to feed on 1st instar larvae and are unable to kill adult thrips, so early detection and a sound sampling plan is part of effective control. See section on monitoring. TSWV is a problem mostly on vegetable plants such as tomatoes and peppers, while INSV is the predominant tospovirus found in ornamentals. Greenhouse IPM for Western Flower Thrips. Orius will feed on pollen in the absence of thrips and also other small pests such as spider mites and caterpillar eggs. Pest control materials must be applied before WFT enter terminal or flower buds because once they do, it is very difficult to obtain adequate regulation and prevent injury. 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