Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. The correct answer is (d), all of the above. S02 Introduction To Psychology II Exam 2 Answers (Ashworth College). Most people seem to favor _______ for encoding and rehearsing the contents of short-term memory. Copyright 2021 SeeTutorials.com. 5.0/ 5.0 Points. Microeconomics. relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience; all organisms learn because it is necessary for survival, repeat neutral stimulus and decrease response (less likely to occur if stimulus is threatening), becoming more sensitive to other stimuli after a threatening stimulus, attachment of younger animals to older ones; not limited to within a species, learning through foreign associations between experiences; extremely simple form of learning - can even take place in the womb, noticed dogs salivated before smell of meat and designed an experiment observing this phenomenon, unconditioned stimulus; a stimulus that provokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning, unconditioned response; an unlearned reaction to some stimulus that occurs without conditioning; a reflex, conditioned stimulus; a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired meaning through conditioning and the capacity to evoke a response, conditioned response; a learned reaction that occurs because of previous conditioning, onset of CS occurs a bit before UCS; ends with UCS, newer stimuli lead to faster learning, because no other associations had been made yet, Classical Conditioning - Biological Preparedness, stimuli are those that we are evolutionarily prepared to associate, including taste aversions and learned fears, with repeated preparation of only the CS without the UCS, eventually the CR will be extinguished, Classical Conditioning - Spontaneous Recovery, when the CR rebounds after a time of no exposure to the CS; implies that we don't really "unlearn" the original, just learn a new response to it, when learning becomes more and more specific, when learned CRs to one CS generalize to other, similar CS objects, learning controlled by consequences in addition to mere association, occurs when the consequences of a response increase an organism's tendency to make that response, Operant Conditioning - Positive Reinforcement, response increases because you get a positive response, Operant Conditioning - Negative Reinforcement, response increases because you remove a negative stimulus, occurs when the presentation of a negative consequence decreases tendency to make that response, Operant Conditioning - Positive Punishment, response decreases because you get a negative response, Operant Conditioning - Negative Punishment, response decreases because you remove a positive stimulus, the reinforcement of closer approximations of a behavior, reinforcing "chains" of behavior into one stream; only reinforce when entire chain of previously reinforced behaviors are emitted in the right order, if a behavior was previously reinforced, then becomes unreinforced, that behavior will become extinguished over a time, Operant Conditioning - Over-justification Effect, if you reward a behavior that otherwise was inherently interesting or rewarding, it can reduce the interest in engaging in that behavior without reward in the future, an event that is inherently reinforcing because it satisfies a basic or biological need, an event that acquires primary reinforcing qualities through association, when the desired behavior is reinforced only some of the time; can be better for long-term persistence of behavior, where reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable amount of responses; leads to greatest resistance to extinction, results in superstitious behavior; leads to negative behavior and OCD, learning that occurs when behavior is influenced by the observation of others; humans do this all the time - it is natural to model behavior on others, Observational Learning - Vicarious Reinforcement, high impact on learning when a peer receives strong positive or negative consequences, the persistence of learning over time; the capacity to acquire and attain usable skills and knowledge via the storage and retrieval of information, Three Attributes of Information for It to Become Memorized, 1. retrograde amnesia: sufferers cannot retrieve old information, 1. shallow: structural encoding (noticing physical features), 1. imagery: easier to remember concrete and vivid images or events, so visual mnemonics work well, 1. sensory memory: one-third of a second; sensory perception persists as long as its experience does, 1. short stage duration: roughly 20 seconds without rehearsal or engagement, occur in long-term memory; associations help explain how one idea might spur another idea, and how multiple cues might help you receive an idea, 1. declarative (explicit): "stuff you can talk about"; consists of semantic and episodic memory, Lashley and Penfield's Ideas about Memory, Lashley: observed that removal of more of a butterfly's motor cortex resulted in poorer performance in memory tests; Penfield: studied that stimulation of temporal lobe in butterflies led to recall of events, but so did stimulation of other brain areas, there is no single storage for memories in the brain; rather, memories trace all over the cortex, important for declarative (explicit) memory consolidation and spatial memory; removal leads to anterograde amnesia, important for encoding information as well as short-term (working) memory; prefrontal cortex important for deeper encoding, "seat" of emotional memories that are often implicit; those with amygdalas removed behave in accordance of memory but with no decalrative recollection of it, a confusion in memory caused by cues in a new situation that are strongly similar to cues in a past situation; gives the feeling of "remembering" the situation, 1. context-dependent: external cues (location), humans attend to just enough information and lose anything that seems irrelevant; can lead to falsely remembering things and situations, Two Forms of Representation of Information, 1. prototype: the best example of a concept; may be one you've never seen before but has many of the features of the concept, schema: organized bundle of representation which includes information about common roles and institutions; script: organized bundle of information that includes proper sequences of behavior, when a representation is too rigid - specifically when you only imagine one function for an object; can be harmful for creative problem solving, with some problems, the correct solution seems to appear in a sudden flash of insight; it is thought to reflect the mental restructuring of a problem, in 1925; performed to learn how animals "learn" or experience insight, left hemisphere: fine coding - strong association but narrowly focused; right hemisphere: coarse coding - weak association but many associated constructs, the ability to use reason and knowledge to solve problems; determined by IQ = (mental age) / (chonological age) * 100%, Heredity and Environmental Factors Regarding Intelligence, heredity strongly correlates with intelligence; adoption studies show that common environments can also produce similar scores; deprivation of stimulation or affection can lower scores, genetic boundaries or limits on intelligence; estimated to be a 20-point range for most people; enriched environments can increase score, teachers told that random students were "bloomers" made them care for those children more, and those children's scores increased as a result, regardless of actual intelligence; proves environment is very important to intelligence, being reminded of a certain group one may belong to can cause them to be anxious and perform worse, Spearman: believed all intelligence derived from a single factor of mental ability, g; Cattell: hypothesized of crystallized intelligence (acquired knowledge) and fluid intelligence (information processing in novel situations); Gardner: seven types of intelligence, all of which are independent, symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining these symbols, 1. symbolic: simpler than the objects being represented, the basic sounds used in a language; "auditory building blocks", Relationship between Learning Language and Age, as we age, we lose the ability to recognize phonemes not in our mother tongue; infants can distinguish between almost all phonemes, when a continuous stream of information is perceived as categories with boundaries ("ba" vs. "da"), babies babble in the native tongue of their parents (audio or sign); deaf babies of hearing parents never truly fluent, differences in language can also help "nudge" different types of thinking, like Parmpuraaw people and dead reckoning, universal human language; can be expressed vocally or through facial expressions, 1. at birth: can perceive and mimic basic emotions, while all humans can distinguish emotions on others' faces, it is difficult to tell the extent of emotion in the face of somebody from a different cultural group, different groups have different situations when it is acceptable to display certain emotions in public; in private, all humans express emotions similarly, people can identify the emotion of a person speaking a language different from theirs based on vocal expression alone, humans "feel" emotions by cognitive arousal of some stimulus as well as a physiological appraisal of that same stimulus, generally positive or negative states; longer lasting; often occur from no specific trigger event or stimulus, emotional signals; "hints" or "hunches" that occur before the behavior that signal a past emotional response to that stimulus, 1. reward: when fulfilled, a stimulus feels better than left unfulfilled, promotion: pursuit of potential gains; prevention: avoidance of potential losses; they determine emotions of a person upon completion or failure of a task, people who delay their gratification tend to get higher test scores, have better social relationships, and cope with stress better, Three Ways to Facilitate Delayed Gratification, studies systematic behavioral and cognitive changes that occur in a human over the course of his or her life, environmental input impacts brain development, in the first few months of life, brain goes through rapid overproduction of synapses, followed by "pruning" of synapses no longer being used, first person to scientifically study the cognitive development of children; began with intelligence testing and realized that children simply think about the completely differently than adults, until 3-6 months, babies do not have object permanence; around 12 months, they act like "little scientists"; around 18-24 months, they acquire symbolic representation, child engages in centration (focusing on sensory information); still heavily swayed by sensory information; child exhibits egocentric empathy, Concrete Operational Stage of Development, child understands that a change in sensory information is not equal to a change in substance; logical reasoning is improved; good at reasoning about concrete objects in the world but not at hypothetical thinking, child can understand abstract concepts and metaphor; child uses systematic reasoning and logic (like that used for algebra); this stage is the end of any qualitative change in cognition, math: 8-10 month infants can understand simple addition and subtraction; physics: 2-4 month infants surprised by "impossible events" (like rocks flying); this intuitive knowledge is built upon later in life, 1. holophrastic period: 12-14 months; babies express a complete phrase as a single word, knowing that other organisms have different knowledge or intentions than one's own; realizing that what is in the mind matters as much as behavior, three phases of experiment for babies: exploration of toys; separation from parent; and reunion with parent; three types of attachment were seen in subjects: secure (explore / upset / able to be comforted), anxious (clingy / upset / not easily comforted), and avoidant (ignorant / do not ACT upset / do not greet), forgetting; reduced memory over time due to accumulation of new memories, forgetting; inability to remember needed information such as names or faces, forgetting; reduced memory due to failing to pay attention initally, undesirable; the resurgence of unwanted or disturbing memories that we would like to forget, distortion; assigning a memory to the wrong source upon suggestion by something or somebody else, distortion; influence of current knowledge on our memory for past events, distortion; altering a memory because of misleading information, mental shortcuts ("rules of thumb") that we typically use to make decisions, the tendency to make a decision based on the answer that comes most easily to mind, the tendency to place a person or object in a category if the person or object is similar to our prototype for that category, value or pleasure removed from an apparent external goal; like reading a book or solving a puzzle, an external goal, a reward, the reduction of a drive of some sort; like working to earn a paycheck or eating. 24) Psychology laboratory was established in Germany in: Even if it's not and you're just here to test your knowledge! Reviewing Your Exam Answers. The _______ model represents the contents of memory as connections among a huge number of interacting processing units. 1. Singapore University of Social Sciences. It explores topics such as perception, communication, learning, memory, decision-making, persuasion, emotions, and social behavior. Psychology 101: Intro to Psychology Final Exam - Study.com. Multiple Choice Questions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Exam 1 - Part 2. In a class demonstration, Dr. McNamara moved his laser pointer very fast so that we saw a circle on the screen instead of a series of light points. Close Popup > Final Exam Answer Keys + Final Exam Answer Keys Rating: (60) (34) (6) (6) (2) (12) Author: Esther Eberly. C. thirty seconds. Comments. Introduction to Social Psychology Chapter Exam Instructions. improve our society. Sign in Register; Hide. Question 2 of 20. Social identity refers to _____. b. the scientific study of the unconscious. Exam 1 - Midterm Exam Overview. C. confabulation. This is likely because he. It includes basic facts, concepts, and generally accepted principles. Once you are comfortable with the content of these sessions, you can review further by trying some of the practice questions before proceeding to the exam. S02 Introduction To Psychology II Exam 2 Answers (Ashworth College) According to the _____ theory of forgetting, information may get into memory, but it becomes confused with other information. Question Psych Exam 1 Flashcard Maker: Kaitlynn Loper. 2. The Introduction to Psychology exam covers material that is usually taught in a one-semester undergraduate course in introductory psychology. Click the button below to add the Ashworth S02 Exam 2 Answers / Introduction To Psychology II to your wish list. Suggestions. 5-9) at Cram.com. 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